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Bathymetric Lidar and CHARTS Technology

  • Estep, L.L., Lillycrop, W.J. and Parson, L.E. 1994. Estimation of Maximum Depth of Penetration of a Bathymetric Lidar System Using a Secchi Depth Database, Marine Technology Society Journal, Vol. 28, No. 2, 31-36.
  • Guenther, G.C., Cunningham A.G., LaRocque, P.E. and Reid, D.J. 2000. Meeting the accuracy challenge in airborne lidar bathymetry, Proc. 20th EARSeL Symposium: Workshop on Lidar Remote Sensing of Land and Sea, June 16-17, Dresden, Germany, European Association of Remote Sensing Laboratories, (paper #1 on CD), 23 pp.
  • Guenther, G.C., Brooks, M.W. and LaRocque, P.E., 1998. New Capabilities of the SHOALS Airborne Lidar Bathymeter, ERIM International, Vol. I, San Diego, CA, 47-55.
  • Guenther, G.C., Eisler, T.J. Riley, J.L. and Perez, S.W. 1996. Obstruction detection and data decimation for airborne laser hydrography, Proceedings, 1996 Canadian Hydrographic Conference, Halifax, N.S. 51-63.
  • Guenther, G.C., Thomas, R.W.L. and LaRocque, P.E. 1996. Design Considerations for Achieving High Accuracy with the SHOALS Bathymetric Lidar System, SPIE: Laser Remote Sensing of Natural Waters From Theory to Practice, Vol. 2964, 26-37.
  • Guenther, G.C, LaRocque, P.E. and Lillycrop, W.J. 1994. Multiple surface channels in SHOALS airborne lidar, SPIE: Ocean Optics XII, Vol. 2258, 422-430.
  • Optech, Inc. 2004. Field Test Report for CHARTS, prepared for Joint Airborne Lidar Bathymetry Technical Center of Expertise, Document No. 0020905/Rev A.
  • Guenther, G.C., Lillycrop, W.J. and Banic, J.R. 2002, Future advancements in airborne hydrography, International Hydrographic Review, August 2002, 3:2:67-90.
  • Wozencraft, J.M. and Millar, D. 2005. Airborne lidar and integrated technologies for coastal mapping and charting, Marine Technology Society Journal, Fall 2005, 39:3:27-35.
  • Guenther, G.C., 1985: Airborne laser hydrography : system design and performance factors, NOAA professional paper series, 1. Rockville, Md: U.S. Dept. of Commerce, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, National Ocean Service, Charting and Geodetic Services, 385 pp.
  • Guenther, G.C., 2007: Digital Elevation Model Technologies and Applications: The DEM Users Manual, 2nd Edition, D. Maune, ed., American Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing, Chapter 8: Airborne lidar bathymetry, 253-320.


  • LaRocque P.E., Banic, J.R. and Cunningham, A.G. 2004. Design description and field testing of the SHOALS-1000T airborne bathymeter, Proc. SPIE Vol. 5412, Laser Radar Technology and Applications IX; Gary W. Kamerman; Ed. p162-184.
  • Lillycrop, W.J., Pope, R.W. and Wozencraft, J.M. 2002. Airborne lidar hydrography: a vision for tomorrow, Sea Technology, 43:6, pp.27-34.
  • Lillycrop, W.J., Wozencraft, J.M. and Pope, R.W. 2002. Airborne mapping and charting, The Miltary Engineer, 94:619, 25-26.
  • Wozencraft, J.M. 2002. Complete coastal mapping with airborne lidar, Proceedings, Oceans 2002, Biloxi, Mississippi, USA.
  • Wozencraft, J.M. 2003. Sensor fusion for advanced airborne coastal mapping, Proceedings, Coastal Sediments �03, American Society of Civil Engineers, CD.
  • Wozencraft, J.M. and Lillycrop, W.J.. 2003. Airborne coastal mapping, past, present, and future, Journal of Coastal Research, Special Issue 38:207-215.
  • Wozencraft, J.M. and Lillycrop, W.J. 2002. Total shallow water survey through SHOALS lidar, Proceedings, Oceanology International 2002, London, England.

Sensor Fusion

  • Smith, R.A. Irish, J.L. and Smith, M.Q. 2000. Airborne lidar and airborne hyperspectral imagery: a fusion of two proven sensors for improved hydrographic surveying, Proceedings, Canadian Hydrographic Conference 2000, Montreal, Canada.
  • Tuell, G. and Park, J.Y. 2004. Use of SHOALS Bottom Reflectance Images to Constrain the Inversion of a Hyperspectral Radiative Transfer Model, Proc. SPIE Vol. 5412, Laser Radar and Technology Applications IX, G. Kammerman Ed. p. 185-193.
  • Tuell, G., Feygels, V., Kopilevich, Y., Weidemann, A.D., Cunningham, A.G., Mani, R., Podoba, V., Ramnath, Park, J. Y. and Aitken, J. Measurement of ocean water optical properties and seafloor reflectance with Scanning Hydrogrpahic Operational Airborne Lidar Survey (SHOALS): II. Practical results and comparison with independent data, Proc. SPIE Vol. 5885, Algorithms and Technologies for Multispectral, Hyperspectral, and Ultraspectral Imagery XI, S. Chen and P. Lewis Ed.. in press.
  • Tuell, G., Park, J. Y., Aitken, J., Ramnath, V., Feygels, V., Guenther, G. and Kopilevich, Y. 2005. SHOALS-enabled 3-d benthic mapping, Proc. SPIE Vol. 5806, Algorithms and Technologies for Multispectral, Hyperspectral, and Ultraspectral Imagery XI, S. Chen and P. Lewis Ed.. in press.
  • Wozencraft, J.M., Hardegree, L.C., Tuell, G.H. and M. Lee. 2002. Merging airborne lidar bathymetry and spectral imagery for more complete coastal mapping, Proceedings, Seventh International Conference on Remote sensing for Marine and Coastal Environments, Miami, Florida, USA.
  • Wozencraft, J.M., Lee, M., Tuell, G.T. and Philpot, W. 2003. Use of SHOALS data to produce spectrally-derived depths in Kaneohe Bay, Hawaii, Proceedings, Hydro �03, Biloxi, Mississippi, USA.
  • Wozencraft, J.M., Lee, M., Tuell, G.T. and Philpot, W. 2003. Fusion of hyperspectral and bathymetric laser data in Kaneohe Bay, Hawaii, Proceedings of SPIE Vol. 5093 Algorithms and Technologies for Multispectral, Hyperspectral, and Ultraspectral Imagery IX, edited by Sylvia S. Shen, Paul E. Lewis, (SPIE, Bellingham, WA, 2003) 517-527.


Regional Sediment Management

Hydrography/Nautical Charting

Coastal Zone Mapping

  • Irish, J.L. 2000. An introduction to coastal zone mapping with airborne lidar: the SHOALS system, Proceedings, 21 Corso di Aggiomamento in: Techniche per la Diffesa Dallinquinamento,, Cosenza, Italy,
  • Irish, J.L. and Lillycrop, W.J. 1999. Scanning Laser Mapping of the Coastal Zone: The SHOALS System, ISPRS Journal of Photogrammetry & Remote Sensing , Vol. 54, Nos. 2-3, 123-129.
  • Irish, J.L. and Wozencraft, J.M. 2000. Regional mapping of the coastal zone with airborne lidar, PIANC, US Section, Newsletter, Washington, D.C.
  • Mohr, M.C., Pope, J. and McClung, J.K. 1999. Coastal response to a detached breakwater system; Presque Isle, Pennsylvania, USA. Proceedings, Coastal Sediments �99, American Society of Civil Engineers, Vol. 3, 2010-2025.
  • West, G.R. and Wiggins, C.E. 2000. Airborne Mapping Sheds Light on Hawaiian Coasts and Harbors, Earth Observation Magazine (EOM), Vol. 9, No. 4, 25-27.
  • Wozencraft, J.M., Irish, J.L., Wiggins, C.E., Stupplebeen, H. and Chavez, P.S. 2000. Regional mapping for coastal management, Maui and Kauai, Hawaii, Proceedings, National Beach Preservation Conference 2000, Maui, Hawaii.
  • Wozencraft, J.M. 2001. The coastal zone revealed through SHOALS lidar data. Proceedings, Hydro �01, Norfolk, Virginia, USA.

Coastal Inlets and Navigation Projects

  • Buonaiuto, F.S. and Kraus, N.C. 2001. Limiting Slopes and Depths at Ebb-Tidal Shoals, Integrated Costal Zone Magazine, Autumn, 2000, 69-72.
  • Irish, J.L. 1997. Navigation Channel Sedimentation Prediction Sensitivity to Wave-Field Characterization, PIANC Annual Bulletin, No. 95-1997, 5-20.
  • Irish, J.L. and Lillycrop, W.J. 1997. Monitoring New Pass, Florida, With High Density Lidar Bathmetry, Journal of Coastal Research, Vo. 13, No. 4, 1130-1140.
  • Irish, J.L. and Sorenson, R.M. (in press). Existing Techniques for Predicting Offshore Channel Shoaling, U.S. ARMY Engineer Waterways Experiment Station, Technical Report No. 98-, Vicksburg, MS.
  • Irish, J.L. and White, T.E. 1998. Coastal Engineering Applications of High Resolution Bathymetry, Coastal Engineering, Vol. 35, Nos. 1-2, 47-71.
  • McClung, J.K. 1998. High density lidar data: a monitoring tool for East Pass, Florida. Proceedings, Fifth International Conference on Remote Sensing for Marine and Coastal Environments, Environmental Research.
  • McClung, J.K. 2000. Observing and modeling the wave-driven, landward migration of sand shoals at tidal inlets. Thesis submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of Master of Science, University of South Alabama, May, Mobile, AL.
  • McClung, J.K. and Douglass, S.L. 1999. Observing changes in an ebb-tidal shoal. Proceedings, Coastal Sediments �99, American Society of Civil Engineers, Vol. 1, 734-749.
  • Parson, L.E. and Lillycrop, W.J. 1993. Airborne Lidar Technology for Measurements In and Around Inlets, Proceedings of the 1993 National Conference on Beach Preservation Technology, St. Petersburg, FL, 175-190.


  • Parson, L.E., Lillycrop, W.J., Klein, C.J., Ives, R.C. and Orlando, S.P. 1996. Use of Lidar Technology for Collecting Shallow Bathymetry of Florida Bay, Journal of Coastal Research, Vol. 13, No. 4.
  • Wozencraft, J.M. and Irish, J.L. 2000. Airborne lidar bathymetric and topographic surveys of carbonate beaches. Proceedings: Carbonate Beaches 2000, Key Largo, Florida, USA.
  • Wozencraft, J.M., Francis, K. and Pope, J. 2002. SHOALS Airborne laser Hydrography to Support Lake Ontario-St. Lawrence River Water Level Study, Proceedings, 2002 Canadian Hydrographic Conference, Toronto, Canada.

Rapid Environmental Assessment


  • Banic, J.R. and Cunningham, A.G. 1998. Airborne Laser Bathymetry: A Tool for the Next Millennium, EEZ Technology, Edition 3, Aug/Sep, 75-80.
  • Brooks, M.W., Culpepper, E., Guenther, G.C. and LaRocque, P.E. 1998. Advancements and applications of the SHOALS laser bathymetry system, ION GPS 98, Nashville, Tenn. 8 pp.
  • Cunningham, A.G., Lillycrop, W.J., Guenther, G.C. and Brooks, M.W. 1998. Shallow water laser bathymetry: accomplishments and applications, Oceanology International, Vol. 3, Brighton, England, 277-288.
  • Irish, J.L., McClung, J.K. and Lillycrop, W.J. 2000. Airborne lidar bathymetry: the SHOALS system, PIANC Bulletin, No. 103�2000, 43-53.
  • Lillycrop, W.J. and Banic, J.R. 1993. Advancements in the US Army Corps of Engineers Hydrographic Survey Capabilities: The SHOALS System, Marine Geodesy, Vol. 15.
  • Lillycrop, W.J. and Estep, L.L. 1995. Generational Advancements in Coastal Surveying, Mapping, Sea Technology, Vol. 36, No. 6, 10-16.
  • Lillycrop, W.J., Irish, J.L. and Parson, L.E. 1997. SHOALS System, Sea Technology, Vol. 38, No. 6, 17-25.
  • Lillycrop, W.J., Parson, L.E. and Irish, J.L. 1996. Development and Operation of the SHOALS Airborne Lidar Hydrographic System, SPIE: Laser Remote Sensing of Natural Waters - From Theory to Practice, Vol. 2964, 26-37.
  • Lillycrop, W.J., Parson, L.E., Estep, L.L., LaRocque, P.E., Guenther, G.C., Reed, M.D. and Truitt, C.L. 1994. Field Test Results of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Airborne Lidar Hydrographic Survey System, Proceedings of the 6th Biennial National Ocean Service International Hydrographic Conference, Norfolk, VA, pp. 144-151.
  • Riley, J.L. 1995. Evaluating SHOALS Bathymetry using NOAA Hydrographic Survey Data, Proceedings, 24th Joint Meeting of UJNR Sea-Bottom Surveys Panel.

Wave Research

  • Hwang, P.A., Walsh, E.J., Krabill, W.B., Swift, R.N., Manizade, S.S., Scott, J.F. and Earle, M.D. 1998. Airborne Remote Sensing Applications to Coastal Wave Research, Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 103, No. C9, 18,791-18,800.
  • Irish, J.L., Wozencraft, J.M. and Cunningham, A.G. 2001. Water wave measurement with lidar from a fixed platform. Proceedings, Coastal Dynamics �01, Lund, Sweden.
  • Irish, J.L., Wozencraft, J.M., and Cunningham, A.G. 2000. Lidar sensor for measuring directional-spectral characteristics of water waves, Proceedings, 2000 EARSeL: Lidar Remote Sensing of Land and Sea, EARSeL, Dresden, Germany.



  • Safety and Health Requirements Manual, ENG Form 5044-R, EM 385-1-1, SHOALS Public Laser Safety.

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